Intelligence Repots — Terrorism Recognition and Law applicable and No-Law application possibilities

International terrorism poses an increasingly dangerous and difficult threat to America. Countering the growing danger of the terrorist threat requires significantly stepping up U.S. efforts. Priority one is to prevent terrorist attacks and the method of International high classified information and communications is not so efficient as recognized on the legal documentation. U.S. intelligence and law enforcement communities must use the full scope of their authority to collect intelligence regarding terrorist plans and methods. U.S. policies must firmly target all states that support terrorists. Private sources of financial and logistical support for terrorists must be subjected to the full force and sweep of U.S. and international laws. A terrorist attack involving a biological agent, deadly chemicals, or nuclear or radiological material, even if it succeeds only partially, could profoundly affect the entire nation. The government must do more to prepare for such an event. The President and Congress should reform the system for reviewing and funding departmental counterterrorism programs to ensure that the activities and programs of various agencies are part of a comprehensive plan. The most controversial conclusions included the Report’s call “for the monitoring of all foreign students, using criminals and terrorists as American spies, and making wiretapping easier” (Lodal, 2001, p. 100). Due the recent events, data analytics and several notifications demonstrated accurate informations recognized advance terrorism activities and the prevention of large terrorism damages on the economy on the territories isn’t recognized legal.

  1. Religious Terrorism;
  2. Conventional Terrorism;
  3. Cyber Terrorism;
  4. Financial Terrorism;
  5. Chemical Terrorism;
  6. Psycho Terrorism.

Religious Terrorism

Religious terrorism is a type of religious violence where terrorism is used as a tactic to achieve religious goals or which are influenced by religious identity. In the modern age, after the decline of ideas such as the divine right of kings and with the rise of nationalism, terrorism has more often been based on anarchism, and revolutionary politics. Since 1980, however, there has been an increase in terrorist activity motivated by religion.

Conventional Terrorism

As important as the actual attacks is the cultivation in the target population of the fear of such attacks, so that the threat of violence becomes as effective as actual violence. While advancements in technology, modernization, and globalization have helped many states prosper over the course of history, they have also opened terrorist groups to new tactics and weaponry. The different tactics that terrorist groups utilize can be very simple to extremely complex. In his book, Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat, Responding to the Challenge, Harvard Law Professor Alan M. Dershowitz states that before the dawn of dynamite and automatic weapons, killings conducted by terrorists had to be done on a one-on-one basis. Dershowitz also describes how the introduction of new weapons and technology has enabled terrorists to kill more efficiently and in greater numbers; usually people, groups or government’s employees (mostly weapons owners) suffering a particular conduct of politics because of different political ideas. Those people are involved in a progressive nationalism fundamentalism like Nazism, Fascism, White People fundamentalism, Americanism, etc…; Terrorist tactics tend to favor attacks that avoid effective countermeasures and exploit vulnerabilities. As such, terrorist groups have the potential to utilize many different types of terrorism tactics depending on the circumstances and the perceived likelihood of success. Some tactics are more conventional and widely used in the operations of many terrorist groups. These tactics include shootings, hijackings, kidnappings, bombings, and suicide attacks. Other tactics are seen more unconventional and have only been used in a few instances, if at all. However, these unconventional tactics are perceived by government officials and experts alike as serious potential threats. Some types of unconventional terrorism tactics commonly recognized by terrorism experts are bioterrorism, agroterrorism, nuclear terrorism, and cyberterrorism. Those people rarely threaten people and usually getting arrest because of the police presence in the country, usually when the badge authority is threatening people it is harder to proof also with evidence of it. A constant monitoring of the activity must increase, the fact is that governments getting lower quality year by year and those authority feeling hate for it.

Cyber Terrorism

Cyber Terrorism way different by the cyber criminality, usually the criminal stealing data with illegal cyber attacks, or doing bank robberies and money stealing. In the developing age Information Technology, many political scientists and prominent government officials have become increasingly concerned about the ability of terrorist groups to execute cyber attacks and states’ vulnerabilities to these attacks. Cyberterrorism could potentially become an increasingly desirable tactic for terrorist groups given that they can be executed thousands of miles away from the target and are difficult to trace back to the perpetrator. In an October 2012 speech, United States Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta described the seriousness of a cyber attack on the United States: ( A cyber attack perpetrated by nation states or violent extremists groups could be as destructive as the terrorist attack of 9/11. Such a destructive cyber terrorist attack could paralyze the nation. ) The term “cyberterrorism” was first coined by Barry Collin, a senior research fellow at the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, in the 1980s. The Center for Strategic and International Studies defines cyberterrorism as “the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures (such as energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population.” Many experts believe that new vulnerabilities will be created as nations and their critical infrastructures become more dependent on computer networks for their operation. While concern is growing, cyberterrorism attacks still largely remain hypothetical, especially in the United States. In his report for the Center for Strategic and International Studies, James A Lewis writes that so far cyberterrorism has meant little more than propaganda and intelligence collection, and that no critical infrastructures have ever been shut down by cyber terrorist attacks. Lewis also describes how terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda have made significant use of the Internet, but only as a tool for intra-group relations, fundraising, and public relations. An Al-Qaeda training manual entitled “Military Studies in the Jihad Against the Tyrants” explicates that explosives are the preferred weapon of terrorists because “explosives strike the enemy with sheer terror and fright.” While explosions are dramatic, strike fear into the hearts of opponents, and do lasting damage, cyber attacks, like some other types of terrorism tactics, simply do not have the same dramatic and political effect that terrorists seek. Some political scientists, like Lewis, argue that terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda might use cyber attacks to disrupt emergency services in order to reinforce and multiply the effect of a physical attack. Because hacker-terrorists have political ideas, the person, the group or the government employees, threatening with marketing methods, mobile hacking and server based tracking and persecution, basically stalking with the intent of damage the victims; in the last decade the possibilities of nuclear weapons hacking has been increased and technology is in danger, governments not really investing in protection and anonymity, and risks quite high to get kill by the hacker.

Financial Terrorism

The term economic terrorism or financial terrorism is strictly defined to indicate an attempt at economic destabilization by a group. Economic terrorism is defined in the terms of contrary to “economic warfare” which is undertaken by states against other states, “economic terrorism” would be undertaken by transnational or non-state actors. This could entail varied, coordinated and sophisticated or massive destabilizing actions in order to disrupt the economic and financial stability of a state, a group of states or a society (such as market oriented western societies or economies) or a trading exchange for ideological, monetary or religious motives. These actions, if undertaken, may be violent or not. They could have either immediate effects or carry psychological effects which in turn have economic consequences. Usually referred to the commercial or economy terrorism, person, group or government using several methods to damage country or companies economy because of political ideas.

Chemical Terrorism

Bioterrorism is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. Biological agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they can be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents in the hands of terrorists pose serious threats to states’ security because they can be easily spread through the air, through water, and through food. Biological agents can also be difficult to detect and often do not cause illness for several hours to several days. A prominent example of a bioterrorist attack on the United States is the September 2001 anthrax attacks. On September 18, 2001, several letters containing anthrax were sent to media outlets and the U.S. Congressional offices of Senator Thomas Daschle and Senator Patrick Leahy. Five Americans died from anthrax inhalation as a result of contact with the contaminated mail. While the 2001 anthrax attacks were relatively small-scale, the United States government has taken several steps since to 2001 to pass legislation and initiatives aimed at better protecting the United States against biological attacks, improving the United States’ public health system, and improving the United States ability to respond to biological attacks.

Psycho Terrorism

Psychological powerful mind attacks is usually referred to mental tactics and strategies threatening people, groups or governments trying to force people to the suicide, or to intimidate and force people to receive illegitimacy in political processes or political documentation. Or the opposite, politicians trying to refuse your civil rights using intimidation strategies. Suicide terrorism is the most aggressive form of terrorism, pursuing coercion even at the expense of losing support among terrorists’ own community. What distinguishes a suicide terrorist is that the attacker does not expect to survive a mission and often employs a method of attack that requires the attacker’s death in order to succeed (such as planting a car bomb, wearing a suicide vest, or ramming an airplane into a building). In essence, a suicide terrorist kills others at the same time that he kills himself. Usually these tactics are used for a demonstrative purposes or to targeted assassinations. In most cases though, they target to kill a large number of people. Thus, while coercion is an element in all terrorism, coercion is the paramount objective of suicide terrorism. The number of attacks using suicide tactics has grown from an average of fewer than five per year during the 1980s to 180 per year between 2000 and 2005, and from 81 suicide attacks in 2001 to 460 in 2005. These attacks have been aimed at diverse military and civilian targets, including in Sri Lanka, in Israel since July 6, 1989, in Iraq since the US-led invasion of that country in 2003, and in Pakistan and Afghanistan since 2005.

In Conclusion

According to Schwartau in corporate information warfare companies are targeted, typically by their competitors. Such warfare may include methods of industrial espionage, spreading disinformation, leaking confidential information and damaging a company’s information systems. Chris Rouland of the cybersecurity & cyberarms company Endgame, Inc. controversially advocated that private companies should be allowed to “hack back” against nations or criminals trying to steal their data. After a wave of high-profile attacks against US companies and government databases a panel of experts assembled by the George Washington University Center for Cyber and Homeland Security said policies should be eased to allow “active defense” measures to deter hackers and did not recommend hacking back “because they don’t want the cure to be worse than the disease”. Relevantly on the February 2017 RSA Conference Microsoft President Brad Smith stated that technology companies need to preserve trust and stability online by pledging neutrality in cyber conflict. The dramatic increase in the use of the Internet for business purposes has exposed private entities to greater risks for cyber-attacks. Garcia and Horowitz propose a game theoretic approach which considers economic motivations for investment in Internet security and investigate a scenario in which firms plan for long-term security investment by considering the likelihood of cyber-attacks. Botnets may be used to knock business competitors off line. They can be hired by corporations to disrupt the operation of competitors on the networks. Low-grade corporate warfare is constantly being waged between technology giants by “patent trolls, insider blogs and corporate talking points”. Supply chain attacks in corporate warfare can be called supply chain interdiction. The term may also refer to the privatization of warfare mainly by the involvement of private military companies. It has been speculated that the concept of “non-international armed conflict within the meaning of Article 3 GC I to IV” of the Fourth Geneva Convention would be wide enough to allow for covering “a renaissance of corporate warfare”.

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